Author Topic: Types of Cultivation aka Growing Methods for Gardeners  (Read 280 times)

Marie Shallcross

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Types of Cultivation aka Growing Methods for Gardeners
« on: April 10, 2017, 08:17:45 pm »
Types of Cultivation aka Growing Methods for Gardeners


A whistle-stop tour or brief outline for quick reference. 

So when a client asks you “What is the difference between no-dig and straw-bale gardening?” you’ll feel confident to give a sufficient reply if productive gardening isn’t your usual area of expertise.

We can blind them with botany and agricultural science but sometimes simple is best!


The terms ‘types of cultivation’ and ‘growing methods’ are frequently used as interchangeable terms. Its fine to do this, as there are growing systems which are a combination. The differences could be defined as follows: -

The ‘growing method’ refers to the physical boundaries or style. For example, crop rotation.
Growing method is sometimes referred to as ’crop growing method’. This is more applicable to agriculture, allotment gardens and large kitchen gardens than the small domestic garden.

Within these methods one would use ‘types of cultivation’. For example, the ‘three sisters’ system.

For convenience, I’ve used these definitions to break up the growing methods below.


Growing methods 



Crop rotation

Crop rotation is a crop growing method which can be used with different types of cultivation, for example, rows, raised beds, square foot.

Briefly, crop rotation is a means of production where the different types of crop are grown in the same area in successive years in order to reduce pests and diseases and to maximise the soil nutrients.

A three course rotation means that crop A will be grown in area D in year 1 and then again in year 4; four and five course rotations are also frequently used. The number of courses is directly affected by the number of different edible plant groupings. For example, brassicas, roots, legumes are the three most common groups used.

The Romans are known to have used crop rotation. A three course rotation was common in medieval England through to the mid eighteenth century when Jethro Tull (inventor of the horse drawn seed drill for sowing large fields) implemented a four course crop rotation. These rotations included a fallow year when no crops were grown; where livestock was pastured on the land instead the dung would be ploughed in the following autumn, improving the soil quality. However, where the fields were left fallow with no livestock there was no replenishing of the nutrients and the land would eventually become less fertile.
Crop rotation is extremely important in monocultures, ie where a single crop is grown; although the area may be a raised bed or a ten-acre field. There are arguments against the necessity of rotation in small areas, but it is still advisable if a monoculture system of cultivation is in place.



Raised beds

Raised bed gardening can be as simple as mounding up the earth in your productive border or as complex as an ornamental potager.

Thomas Hill in his ‘Directions for the Gardiner’ in the sixteenth century described raised beds as the best method of production. He based his advice on the Greek and Roman gardening treatises that had become available during the Renaissance.

These raised beds should be no wider than a gardeners arm or reach; unless they are accessible on two sides, in which case they could be twice as wide. This way the earth in the beds does not become compacted from having been walked upon.

You can plant in rows, blocks, plant monocultures or biodiverse plant communities within the raised beds.

If you build the beds with a brick or wood edge that is wide enough to sit on, it can make cultivation easier. And also provide extra seating if the raised beds surround a patio.

A further advantage of raised bed gardening for small spaces within gardens is that it allows for a more intensive style of cultivation so more crops can be grown.


Vertical gardening

On a simple level, this is using walls and fences as support for productive climbing plants and adding extra trellis and wigwams structures to create extra vertical space in your garden or allotment.

Cut and come again lettuce, strawberries and other small plants can be grown gutters or troughs fixed to sheds and walls; trailing tomatoes with red and yellow cherry fruits are decorative as well as practical grown in hanging baskets.

However vertical gardening also encompasses the newer techniques and technologies, including hydroponics (see below). Most of us will have seen examples of greenery growing on a living wall, part of the ‘greening the city’ movement.

The watering system is automated, so, as long as the crops can be reached when they’re ready to harvest, there’s no problem. It’s even possible to grow plants in this way in your kitchen – herbs and salad leaves easily picked as you prepare dinner. 

A variation on this is where the edible plants are grown in towers. Those sold to the domestic market are fairly small, like overgrown strawberry pots; some need watering whilst others work on an aeroponics system.



‘Types of cultivation’


Growing in rows

A cultivation or tillage method used in conjunction with crop rotation. It is frequently asserted to be a late eighteenth century introduction alongside the increased use of agricultural machinery. However, this is usually because people are getting muddled between gardens and farms. Ploughs, whether hand pulled, horse drawn or mechanical, are most efficiently used in a long straight run, which is why rows have been used for hundreds of years.

They were introduced into domestic gardens much later, most commonly in the nineteenth century when there was a substantial increase in new gardens built to accommodate the urban middle classes. The great walled kitchen gardens of the aristocracy and landed gentry had a history of using both rows and block planting depending on the crop and the arrangement of the garden. 

Strictly speaking growing vegetables in rows was an invention of the Chinese. There is a document from the third century BC where the efficiency of the crop or amount produced is said to be increased by growing the crops in rows. But they were most likely growing crops in rows as early as the sixth century BC.

Rows are best laid out on a north – south axis so the crops get the most benefit from the sun as it travels across the sky during the day.


Square foot gardening

An intensive cropping system used in conjunction with both raised beds and open ground cultivation.

It’s easier to describe from a raised bed perspective, as you can plan ahead and build your beds four-foot square. The idea is that you sow or transplant one plant per square foot if it’s a larger plant such as a cabbage; four, or even nine, more plants if they’re smaller.

This doesn’t sound like a lot of plants, but it should be remembered that they would take up more room than this in the ground if grown in traditional rows.


‘Three sisters’ cultivation

Both the North and South American Indians grew a lot of squashes; they had a system called ‘three sisters’ where they grew squashes, beans and corn together for the benefits each gave to the others whilst growing. According to Iroquois legend, the three sisters, or plants, were gifted by the Sky Woman’s daughter, and gave agriculture to people.

This interplanting method of agriculture has known benefits. The maize provides support for the beans; the squash acts as a ground cover to reduce weeds and keep moisture in the soil; the beans provide nitrogen for the other two crops.

The companion planting rather than pursuing a monoculture system (ie one species only) also improves the condition of the soil by increasing beneficial mycorrhiza which encourages a symbiotic relationship between the plants roots and the surrounding soil.
 

‘No-dig’ Systems

The no-dig idea rests on the notion that the roots of your crop plants will only go down around 20cm and so it is only the top level of the soil that needs work. It is also based on the theory that deep digging destroys the soil structure.


Lasagne Gardening

This really is a no-dig option for building raised beds and great soil. It is based on a similar principle to sheet composting, and allows you to build raised beds without stripping grass or weeds off the site.

Basically, you layer cardboard, newspaper, lawn and plant shreddings, alternating ‘green’ and ‘brown’ as you would in a compost heap; top off with a layer of compost rich soil. Then let the worms and soil microbes do their work. What you start with does depend on the ground at the bottom. If it’s infested with perennial weeds you may like to put down membrane first!


Straw bale gardening

To describe Straw Bale Gardening as a soil-less growing method isn’t strictly true. A small amount of soil or compost is used.  However, it is a no-dig form of gardening.

The straw bale, or a hay bale (both would be suitable) is used as a raised bed. It has the advantage of being fully compostable when you’ve finished with it. To prepare the bales, first soak for up to ten days before you plant. Use, for example, a high nitrate liquid feed such as poultry manure. You make a hole in the soaked bale, add some soil or potting compost so the plant’s roots have some support initially. Then plant your crops into the bale.

This growing method is not really suitable for root crops and tuberous vegetables like carrots, onions and potatoes.


Forest gardening

Forest gardening or agro forestry is a sustainable perennial system to grow food crops in a manner that mimics a deciduous forest. The plants grown are trees, shrubs and other perennials and crops produced include fruits, nuts, edible leaves for food, honey, medicinal products, baskets and fuel.

It is a system of agriculture that has long been practised in tropical regions but is a more recent introduction in temperate climates. One of the problems is the lower light levels for the ground hugging plants as compared to that experienced near the equator in the tropical forests.

Although not everyone will have room in their garden for the full seven layers, as a concept it can be adapted to provide a low maintenance sustainable method of providing a wide range of perennial crops. It can also provide an ideal location in which to keep a bee hive and hens.


Permaculture

Permaculture is not just about growing plants, it’s about the whole interaction between plants, animals, birds and humans.

The concept is to design spaces for sustainable living that work with nature, and creating a positive rather than a negative impact on the world. The word comes from ‘permanent agriculture’ and ‘permanent culture’.

Unlike forest gardening which has only perennial planting, permaculture includes annual food crops. Strictly speaking, it is going to be a ‘minimum dig’ rather than a ‘no-dig’ system.



Soil-less Cultivation Methods


Hydroponics

Hydroponics is where the fruit and vegetables sit on troughs with their roots dangling in a water based solution containing the necessary minerals and nutrients required for growth.
As it is through their roots that plants take up nutrients this is an efficient growing system.

There are both closed and open hydroponic systems. In the closed system, there is a cover over the top of the trough and the water solution is recycled. A high degree of automation is possible with this system, making it popular with mass producers of luxury salads and vegetable plants.

It is also a suitable form of cultivation in areas with low rainfall as due to the recycling of the solution water used is very efficient.


Aquaponics

It combines the aquaculture of raising aquatic animals with the hydroponic system of raising plants in a sustainable symbiotic manner, which is why it is sometimes referred to as ‘pisciponics’.

Aquaponics is another water based cultivation system similar to hydroponics. It combines the aquaculture of raising aquatic animals with the hydroponic system of raising plants in a sustainable symbiotic manner, which is why it is sometimes referred to as ‘pisciponics’.

This is not a new method for growing food crops. Historically the paddy fields of south eastern Asia combined the growing of rice with the raising of snails and fish for food.
Water based growing method and soil less growing method are interchangeable terms to describe aquaponics systems.


Aeroponics

Aeroponics is a soil less crop growing method where the plants are supported 'in the air' and the root systems exposed. The plants are held upright so that the roots can easily be sprayed with a nutrient rich mist.

The whole system can be automated, and it has the advantage of being very economical in its water usage. Approximately half that used for a hydroponic system to feed the same quantity of crops.

Aeroponics is a high yielding method of crop growing and has the potential to seriously increase yield. However, it is not suitable for all plants.



Other Growing Methods and Cultivation Systems


Biodynamic gardening

Also known as planting by the moon. This technique dates back thousands of years. It works on the premise that certain crops do better when planted or harvested during different phases of the moon and constellation positions. For example, sowing seeds two days before a full moon gives a better germination rate than sowing two days after.

Local weather and soil conditions are still factors in optimising sowing and planting conditions.

The purpose behind these next two cultivation methods is to maximise the harvest from a small space. This intensive horticulture is generally easier to manage in raised beds purely because it doesn’t involve walking on the soil. Which would be risking damage to the range of crops which are all at different stages of growth.

Succession planting

The permutations of this technique can be used individually or in combination. Firstly, it is where seeds are sown at 2 week intervals to prolong the harvest and prevent a glut of produce.
The other technique used is the practice of rapidly filling the space vacated by a harvested crop by planting a new crop.


Catch crops and Interplanting

These terms are sometimes used interchangeably.
This system of cultivation is used for where fast maturing and slow growing edible plants are interplanted, for example, sprouts and beetroot. This will increase the size of the harvest produced in a small area.
Those crops which are in the ground for longer such as Brussels sprouts can be interplanted with a faster maturing compatible crop, beetroot for example.

The system is also referred to as catch cropping, because the fast maturing crop is replaced on harvesting by a second. This will still mature before the slower growing crop.


Companion planting

Organic gardeners wanting to reduce the pest and disease damage to both their ornamental and edible crops often use a mix of plants specifically for that purpose.

Common usage over hundreds of years has demonstrated that companion planting works. Scientific study of companion planting has more recently confirmed the benefits.

Companion planting works in different ways depending on the combination of plants and the intention of the pairing. For example, companion plants can attract beneficial insects, including pollinators and predators. Or they may repel pests. For example, plants from the Allium family can reduce the incidence of black spot on roses.

Other plants can lure pests away from more desirable plants; this is often known as ‘sacrificial’ companion planting. On a more basic level, tall plants provide shade for sun-sensitive shorter plants.

There are, as one would expect, variations within these growing methods and cultivation systems. Different climates and soils will affect which ones would be appropriate in a given situation. Personal choice and cultural traditions may also have a bearing. But as an introduction, I trust you’ve found this article helpful.

Marie Shallcross